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An optimisation model was established to assess regional potential of biomethane. The model was applied to the UK domestic energy system. Diverse economic and environmental objectives were shown to shape the system differently. Subsidies could undermine the true economic viability but facilitate the penetration of biomethane.
Mathematical modelling and optimisation at both household and energy supply network levels were developed to study the transformation of the natural gas-based domestic energy supply system with the introduction of biomethane generation, processing and utilisation based on a range of feedstock and conversion technologies. Biomethane processing includes, among other options considered, the conceptual development of a novel approach for upgrading biogas which utilises existing onshore natural gas processing capacity. Four different objective functions were considered for optimisation, representing different economic and environmental propositions, to identify the best path for introducing biomethane with multiple types of feedstock. Economically, these ranges of achievement would correspond to various levels of capital investment and economic viability, depending on the objective functions.